for this assignment please Please list possible options for each of the dilemmas there are 7 options . I attached some resources to help

Bridging the Gap

How can I assist with supporting differences between what the job requires and the skills and abilities of the individual? Here are some dilemmas in matching and some possible issues to explore in helping the person in their employment role. Please list possible options for each of the dilemmas.

Assessment information: Individual can orient in a small area only.
Job analysis information: Job requires orienting building wide.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Assessment information: Individual can work for one hour without a break.
Job analysis information: Job requires working for two hours without a break.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Work Rate
Assessment information: Individual works at a slow pace.
Job analysis information: Job requires working at a steady and sometimes fast pace.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Attention To Task
Assessment information: Individual requires frequent prompts.
Job analysis information: Job provides intermittent prompts and low supervision.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Social Interactions
Assessment information: Individual rarely interacts appropriately.
Job analysis information: Social Interactions Required Infrequently.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Assessment information: Individual requires frequent reinforcement.
Job analysis information: Job offers infrequent reinforcement (on a weekly basis).
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

Assessment information: Individual cannot distinguish among work supplies.
Job analysis information: Job requires distinguishing among work supplies.
Possible Support Options:_______________________________________

What do I need to do during job placement to ready the employee?

Planning for the first day of employment with the new employee will allow for a smooth transition to work. Be sure to keep these things in mind:

  1. Address Social Security Issues Immediately
    • reporting
    • work incentives
  2. Be prepared to complete Employment Forms
    • picture identification
    • social security card
    • birth certificate
  3. Arrange Transportation
    • bus tickets, cab fare
    • names and telephone numbers of others providing transportation
  4. Comply with dress code
    • uniforms
    • grooming
  5. Review the routine of the day
  6. Identify the role of job coach/Employment Specialist

How Do I Teach Someone the Work and Work-Related Skills Important for His or Her Job?

Based on knowledge about discovering individual strengths, we will review some more specific ways to assist individuals in developing skills on the job. Components of good instructional programs include:

  • Task analyses and instructional objectives
  • Probe/baseline assessment procedures
  • Instructional strategies and procedures
  • Reinforcement strategies
  • Fading strategies to ensure maintenance and generalization of skills

The use of instructional strategies for individuals who are supported in employment has been well documented and specific strategies have included all of the above. Critics of providing instruction at job sites have, however, argued that training by an employment specialist or job coach draws attention to the individual and isolates him or her from co-workers and supervisors. Well-designed instructional programs, which are individually driven, do not separate people with disabilities from others. Employment specialists and job coaches must have knowledge of training strategies, the individual’s support needs, employer support needs, and the demands of the workplace in order to select the least intrusive method for providing support.

Task Analysis

Before the individual begins working, you must analyze the job and organize the daily routine. This includes identifying the areas in which various job tasks are performed, determining the essential and non-essential job functions, establishing a work routine, identifying supports in the workplace and designing appropriate training and support strategies. Usually, working one shift prior to introducing the individual to the position will be adequate for completing these activities. When you have performed the job, you can note the specific duties and estimate the amount of time required for completion of each task of the job.

In order to develop and use task analyses; you must follow these steps:

  1. Identify the specific task(s) needed to complete the activity.
  2. Observe and or perform the identified task(s).
  3. Develop a task analysis for each task.
  4. “Field test” your task analyses.
  5. Revise the task analyses as needed.
  6. Set a performance criterion for the individual.
  7. Determine the baseline for the individual’s current performance level.
  8. Begin skill acquisition training using the task analysis.
  9. Probe/test the individual’s performance on a regular basis.
  10. Provide skill acquisition training until performance criterion is met.

Characteristics of a “Good” Task Analysis:

  • The targeted behavior is specified.
  • Steps are stated in terms of observable behavior.
  • Steps are written with adequate detail and one behavior per step.
  • Each step results in a visible change in the task or process.
  • Steps are ordered from first to last.
  • Steps are worded in the form of a verbal cue.

Helpful hints for developing task analyses:

  • Make modifications: Do a written description of initial ideas, implement them, modify as needed, and rewrite them.
  • Through the use of discrimination, you can find ways to systematize tasks to fit the individual and the work site. For example, vacuuming in a pattern results in a clean rug and eliminates the need to discriminate where the rug is dirty.
  • By using the most efficient method of getting the job done, you can reduce the amount of movement required.
  • When you write cues or think about using cues, be clear, concise and direct to keep the individual aware of what he/she must do.

Sample Task Analyis

The following task analysis was developed for cleaning a bathroom toilet. The coach/specialist developed it from watching a co-worker perform the duty:

  1. Pick up the bucket, brush and cleanser.
  2. Fill bucket with clean water.
  3. Go to the first toilet.
  4. Put cleanser in the toilet.
  5. Set down container.
  6. Dip brush in bucket.
  7. Tap brush.
  8. Brush top of toilet.
  9. Brush sides of toilet.
  10. Brush front of toilet.
  11. Dip brush in bucket.
  12. Tap brush.
  13. Brush lid of toilet.
  14. Raise lid of toilet.
  15. Raise lid and brush.
  16. Brush inside of toilet.
  17. Dip brush in bucket.
  18. Tap brush.
  19. Lower lid of toilet.
  20. Brush outside of toilet bowl.
  21. Put brush in bucket.
  22. Get cleanser.
  23. Go to next toilet.

When observing an individual following these steps, it is important that you watch to see if he/she can follow them in an efficient and appropriate manner. For example, if the individual does not understand how many times to “tap the brush”, you could modify the instruction to say: “Tap the brush 3 times.” This is a very short example and it would need to be modified depending on the individual and the exact expectations of the employer for getting the task done.

Data Collection Guidelines

Recording and graphing data is critical to the success of job–site training. Measurement procedures are vital, because they allow the employment specialist/job coach to monitor the employee’s progress and determine whether a particular training strategy is effective or needs modification. Data collection also can provide documentation for continued funding of supported employment for the individual.

Measurement procedures continue throughout initial job training and into long–term support. They assist the employment specialist/job coach in identifying additional training or retraining needed by the individual. Baseline, probe and prompt data are based on the task analysis of each major job duty and indicate the level of independence reached by the individual.

Initial data collection before instruction is called baseline and should be conducted at least once prior to the initiation of a new skill acquisition program. Data collected after training begins is probe data. The procedures for baseline and probe data are essentially the same and provide information about how well an individual performs in the job without prompting or reinforcement. Probe data should be collected at least once each week.

Another form of instructional strategy is the collection of probe data in order to find the appropriate level of instruction needed for the individual. You can construct a single opportunity probe or multiple probes. The specialist/coach shows the individual how to perform the specific job duty prior to conducting the baseline assessment. After training begins, the individual is asked to perform the duty without any prompting or demonstrations. The steps for performing a single opportunity probe are listed in the following table.

Single Opportunity Probe

  • Have the individual move to the appropriate area unless movement is part of the task analysis.
  • Stand beside or behind the individual so that data collection does not interrupt the task.
  • Tell the individual that he or she is going to work without assistance to see how much he or she can do independently.
  • Provide the instructional cue (i.e. fold the towels”).
  • Do not provide any prompts or reinforcement.
  • Wait 3–5 seconds for the individual to make a response.
  • If he or she does not begin the task or makes an error, discontinue the probe and score “–” for all steps on the task analysis form.
  • If the individual begins the task, allow him or her to continue as long as correct responses are being made. Score a “+” for correct performance on the task analysis form.
  • As soon as an error is made, discontinue the probe and score a “–” for all remaining steps in the task analysis.

There is one major benefit to using a single opportunity probe for data collection. Specifically, assessment is not time consuming and does not interrupt the natural flow of the workplace. The use of multiple opportunity probes shows which steps the individual is having difficulty performing without assistance, prompting or reinforcement.

Multiple Opportunity Probe

  • Have the individual move to the appropriate area unless movement is part of the task analysis.
  • Stand beside or behind the consumer so that data collection does not interrupt the task.
  • Tell the individual that he or she is going to work without assistance to see how much he or she can do independently.
  • Provide the instructional cue (i.e. “fold the towels”).
  • Do not provide any prompts or reinforcement.
  • Wait 3–5 seconds for the individual to make a response.
  • Record a “+” for correct performance or a “–” for incorrect performance on the task analysis.
  • If correct, “set up” the individual to perform the next step in the task analysis. If the individual is not ready for the next step, repeat the step.

What is Systematic Instruction?

  1. Cues/prompts may be instructional or natural.
    1. Instructional cues are provided by the job coach/employment specialist and are faded during skill acquisition.
    2. Natural cues are already available in the environment and remain after the individual has acquired the necessary skills.
    3. External cues/prompts are added to the environment and may remain after the job coach/employment specialist has faded.
  2. Cues include (but are not limited to):
    • gestural cues
    • indirect verbal
    • direct verbal
    • physical prompts
    • pictures
    • written information
    • color cues
    • materials
  3. Cues/prompts must be applied systemically to promote skill acquisition.
    • Select cues that are customized to the needs of the individual and the environment.
    • Begin with natural types of cues at natural intensities, durations, and frequencies before adding instructional cues.
    • Always give the individual the opportunity to perform independently before providing a cue.
    • Be consistent in the type and frequency of cues given.
    • Continually re-evaluate to ensure skill acquisition.

Prompt Examples

Indirect Verbal Instructions: What do you do now?
What do you do next?
What happens now?
Direct Verbal Instructions: Get the timecard.
Stock the cart.
Fill the containers.
Indirect Nonverbal
A blinking light on a copy machine is natural cue that can prompt the individual to push the button to make copies.
A dryer buzzer is a natural cue to unload the towels and fold them.
Gestures: Point to the time clock (to prompt the individual to clock in).
Tap a wristwatch (to prompt the individual to take a break).
Touch a stack of aprons (to prompt the individual to put on an apron).
Model Prompts: Co-worker shows the individual how to get to the employee break room.
Supervisor demonstrates how to turn on the machine.
Partial Physical Assistance: Coach/Specialist taps the individual on the arm to pick up time card.
Coach/Specialist guides the individual’s elbow to prompt him/her to pick up towels.
Full Physical Assistance: Coach/Specialist, with hand over the individual’s hand, selects time card from the rack.
Coach/Specialist, with hand on the individual’s hand, guides him/her in placing a towel on top of stack.

Guidelines for Using a Least Prompt Hierarchy

How do I use a system of least prompts to provide instruction?

  1. Have the individual move to the appropriate work area unless movement is part of the task analysis.
  2. Stand behind or behind the individual so that you can quickly provide prompts when necessary.
  3. Provide cue to begin the task (i.e., “pick up towel”)
  4. Wait 3–5 seconds for self-initiation for step 1 in the task analysis.
  5. If the individual completes the step independently, proceed to step 2 of the task analysis.
  6. If the individual is incorrect or does not respond within 3-5 seconds, provide a verbal prompt specific to step 1 of the task analysis.
  7. If the individual completes the step independently, reinforce and move to step 2.
  8. If the individual is incorrect or does not respond within 3-5 seconds, repeat the verbal prompt (i.e. “pick up towel”) and simultaneously model the response (job coach/employment specialist picks up towel).
  9. If theindividual completes the step independently, reinforce and move to step 2.
  10. If the individual is incorrect or does not respond within 3-5 seconds, repeat the verbal prompt (i.e. “pick up towel”) and physically guide the individual through the response (coach/specialist guides the person’s hand to pick up the towel).
  11. Reinforce and move to step 2.
  12. Repeat the procedure for each step in the task analysis until the task is completed.
  13. Always immediately interrupt an error with the next prompt in the least prompt system.

Helpful Hints in Using Least Prompts:

The interval time between each level of assistance should not be too long. It may vary with the physical capabilities of the individual. The interval time between each level should remain constant, i.e. 3 seconds or 5 seconds. Interrupt all errors immediately even if they occur during the period between prompts. Do not repeat the same prompt more than once.

Least prompts can include:

  • indirect verbal instructions (i.e. “what do you do next?”)
  • direct verbal instructions
  • gestures
  • model prompts
  • partial physical/touch
  • total physical assistance

Usually three types of prompts are sequenced in least to most assistance strategy.

Reinforcement Procedures

Selection of reinforcers as well as the systematic delivery of reinforcement can assist an individual in becoming successful in the workplace. The most effective reinforcers are those that occur as a natural consequence to a given task or situation within the work environment. Therefore, your role is to begin by identifying items that are available on the job site. This includes things like co-worker praise, supervisor approval, positive written evaluations, pay raises or bonuses, etc. Remember that not all people are reinforced by the same items and that even the most preferred reinforcement, if used too much, will lose its effectiveness. Only after having tried to identify and use a natural reinforcer in the worksite should the coach/specialist select a more artificial one. Think about the following issues and what is important to you:

What’s Reinforcing To You?

Your supervisor is very pleased with the work that you have been doing. She has given you the following list and asked you to rank the items in order from the one you would most prefer to least.

  1. One week of paid vacation from work
  2. A monetary raise each month
  3. A weekend at the hotel of your choice in a city of your choice
  4. Tickets to an event of your choice, i.e. play, baseball game, concert
  5. Paid class at the local university
  6. One month of getting to work one hour late

More than likely, employees would have varying preferences

How Do Items Develop Reinforcing Properties/Value?

  1. Not just anything can be used as a reinforcer.
  2. A reinforcer should have properties that are valuable to a specific individual under specific conditions
  3. Unconditioned Reinforcers are:
    • food when you are hungry
    • drink when you are thirsty
    • heat when you are cold
  4. Conditioned Reinforcers are:
    Those items that become reinforcing to an individual based on events in his/her life. Usually an unconditioned reinforcer is paired with a previously neutral item that then acquires reinforcing value. i.e. paycheck, supervisor praise, coworker approval, etc.For example, if a job is done well, the individual may receive praise which he/she was not conditioned to expect. Once given, praise can be used to reinforce the behavior because the person values it. It gives him or her some purpose and meaning for doing a good job.

How To Get The Most Out Of Reinforcers:

  • The reinforcer should be delivered immediately following the behavior you want to increase.
  • An individual can “satiate” or get tired of a reinforcer. Always have a variety of reinforcers available.
  • The amount of reinforcement delivered and the level of individual “deprivation” will effect the power of a reinforcer. A LITTLE CAN GO A LONG WAY!
  • Gradually change the requirements in your program to fade the reinforcement.
  • Pair reinforcers that you have added to the job site to those found naturally. This will help the individual continue performing after your have faded from the job.

Using Reinforcement For Instruction:

Get a schedule for reinforcement. Decide upon the number of tasks or behaviors that must be performed correctly (i.e. the number of pots washed or the number of towels folded) in order for the reinforcement to be provided. This number can be fixed (provided after the set number of correct tasks are performed) or variable(provided when the task can be performed a set number of times on the average). The schedule may also be either fixed (ever five minutes, every three days, once a week) or variable (on the average of every five minutes, every three days, or every hour).

Regardless of the schedule being used, set a criteria and gradually increase the requirements in order to fade the reinforcement.

Compensatory Strategies

Using compensatory strategies during job site training can enhance a person’s ability to learn and perform independently. In some instances, compensatory strategy can reduce or eliminate instruction and allow the individual to participate in activities that he or she otherwise would not be able to do. For example, an individual may use a money card to purchase a soda from a vending machine. This can eliminate the need to distinguish between coins or the actual amount that is required to access the machine. The steps to use the strategy may require instruction and should be included within any task analyses that are developed.

If you choose to use compensatory strategies, it is advisable to design them with input from the individual, employer and co-workers. You should be careful in the selection and design of the materials to ensure that they do not stigmatize the individual nor get in the way in the workplace environment. The following list offers some examples of compensatory tools:

  • Written list
  • Digital voice recorder
  • Picture book
  • Assignment board
  • Flow chart

If the individual has difficulty reading requests to determine work assignments, you could:

  • Provide in/out boxes for each co-worker requesting work with name or picture of the co-worker on the box to personalize the requests and allow the individual to follow-up if necessary
  • Provide a special form highlighting relevant features of the task such as a thick out-lined box where number of copies is located
  • Provide a digital voice recorder which requests copy work

If the individual can’t count to package work materials, you could:

  • Use strips of tape on the table that corresponds to the number of items in the package
  • Use pictures of the number of items in the package
  • Use a box with the number of dividers that corresponds to the number of items in package
  • Use a sample of package for matching work

Whenever you use pictures to design a compensatory strategy, be sure:

  • Size is appropriate. Could it be made small enough to fit in a pocket?
  • Pictures are concise and eliminate unnecessary information.
  • Evaluate the number of pictures in the booklet. Too many may distract or confuse the individual rather than assist task completion.
  • Evaluate the size of the book. Does it draw attention to the individual?
  • The materials are those that any adult would use.
  • The booklet is durable. How often will it need to be replaced? Who will be assisting the individual after the coach/specialist has faded from the workplace?
  • The materials are simple to use. Be sure to use the least complicated strategy possible.

All compensatory strategies should be simple to use, concise, and as inobtrusive as possible.

Compensatory Memory Strategies

Individuals with brain injury may have specific memory difficulties. This may include problems with auditory and visual memory and learning, as well as short and long-term memory. The following strategies for dealing with such issues are adapted from material compiled by Virginia Commonwealth University:

  • Imagery: the process of using mental pictures/images of information to be recalled.
  • Mnemonic: impose an organizational structure of verbal information to cue recall of several elements. For example: C= clock in, O= open mail, D= deliver mail, E= enter data.
  • Number Grouping: recalling numbers by perceptually reorganizing them into fewer elements.
  • Memory Notebook: maintaining written cues systematically in a log to keep up with things that have been done or need to be accomplished.
  • Verbal Rehearsals: repeating key information to facilitate memory recall.
  • Assignment Board: a graphically presented list of task assignments.
  • Location and Place Markers: a visual cue physically placed at some point in a task sequence indicating where the task is to be resumed.

What do you do if training does not result in achievement?

If you have used all possible compensatory strategies and you still find the individual does not know how to complete the job duties, you must revise your training program. First review the data and pinpoint the changes that need to be made. In some instances, you could ask other persons in your agency or fellow job coach/employment specialists for other possible solutions. The following questions can assist in modifying the training program:

  • Does the prompting procedure match the learning style of the individual?
  • Is the individual responding to the type of prompt(s) selected?
  • Do noises or people in the environment distract the individual? Is he or she attending to the job task? Can the location of the task be modified to decrease distractions?
  • Can you reduce the number of job duties being taught in order to provide repeated practice on a specific job duty?
  • Has the task(s) been analyzed to match the individual’s abilities?
  • Can the steps be broken into smaller components?
  • Have the physical abilities of the individual been taken into consideration? Can the task analysis be modified to match the motor skills of the worker?
  • Does the task analysis eliminate the need to make quality judgements?
  • Do the steps in the task analysis include any added cues or compensatory strategies that have been added to the job duty?
  • Can several steps of the task be taught rather than the whole task?
  • Are the naturally occurring reinforcers meaningful to the individual?
  • Does the individual need additional reinforcement to learn the job duty?
  • Has a program to systemically fade reinforcement been designed and followed based on data collection?
  • Is the selected reinforcer(s) motivating to the individual?
  • Is the timing of reinforcement correct?
  • Does the schedule of reinforcement meet the support needs of the individual?
  • Has the reinforcement been faded too quickly?
  • Is the individual’s mobility/agility affecting his or her skill acquisition?
  • Can the individual physically perform the job, although unable to meet production demands?
  • Does the worker become fatigued when attempting to perform the motor demands of the task?
  • Has the work site been modified to meet the physical support needs of the individual? Are the work supplies positioned for maximum accessibility?
  • Would the individual’s level of independence be increased by use of assistive technology?
  • Is the work site supportive of technology?
  • Will co-workers be available to provide assistance during a difficult portion of the task?
  • Can the job be restructured to better match the physical abilities of the individual?

Sometimes, in spite of efforts to change the training program, modify the workplace, or add assistive technology devices and services, the individual will still have difficulty performing a job duty. In these instances, the coach/specialist may need to negotiate with the employer to determine if a co-worker can share the job duty or switch for one that is of equal responsibility. The individual, employer, co-worker(s), and employment specialist should meet to discuss the alternatives. A change in the worker’s responsibilities will require the implementation of a new training program for helping him or her perform the new job duties.

Training Lessons From History (Morrow & Sechrist, 1999)

Natural First

When possible, use natural methods and coworkers or supervisors for job training. This is the best way to keep the worker from being perceived as less competent than any other new employee and will facilitate acceptance and full inclusion of the supported worker.
In a “picture” of a good relationship with the supported worker and employer, the coach would be slightly behind and to the side of the worker and employer. You are there to support both the worker and employer in developing a mutually beneficial working relationship.

If “natural first” doesn’t work:

Anytime anything is added to the natural environment (including the job coach), attention is drawn to the worker. As environmental additions are made, think about HOW to fade them. Knowing how to fade the additions must be part of the factors considered when making the decision to add them.
You must always consider the benefit of the added strategy as well as the attention it draws to the worker. In some cases, artificial measures can make the person appear less competent and thus decrease his or her chances for inclusion in the culture of the workplace. Always be aware of the effect of your actions on the perceptions of others toward the worker.

Helping People Learn

Set the Stage for Learning

The trainer should explain the task and its purpose to the worker. Be sure the individual understands why each task is important, what happens to the finished product, and why the job needs to be completed correctly and with high quality. Be sure to use an appropriate method of communicating with the worker. Based on your knowledge of the worker, his or her experience, and the task itself, you may decide to start the instructional interaction by demonstrating the task for the person. If you think the worker can accomplish the task with only verbal cues, start there. Add systematic strategies or prompts if you find they are necessary or are sure of their necessity from the start.