This form includes directions on how to use some of the week 1 & 2 online materials and will help you focus your studying efforts. It provides a structured format for you to record your learning about key concepts. The completed report can be a valuable reference while you take the first two online exams. You may also use your work here as the basis of some of your class discussion.

There is a fair amount of overlap between the different facets of the last half of the course class, so it is possible to answer the report questions based on class sources other than the one most closely associated with a given question. The hypertext is likely to be able to help with many questions located in other sections, while the text will be less useful than it was in the first two weeks. If use your own research to answer report questions cite materials, you use from outside of the course.

  1. Latitude and Longitude. Find you location for the class introductions. Learn the geographic grid and how to use longitude and latitude to locate a point on the planet’s surface. 1.
    1. Latitude 32.825250, Longitude -117.120440

2. Earth’s Features <9> Look up the location of earth’s continents, major mountain ranges, seas, and oceans. Scroll down on the second and third links to play some games to help familiarize yourself with these features.

A. What oceans are north and south of the Atlantic Ocean? (2)

B. What line of longitude runs near the Ural Mts. (2)

C. Can you say anything in general about where mountain ranges are found on continents? (5)

3. Plates Tectonic and the faults between them. These interactive maps allow you to view the locations of volcano and earthquake activity and compare them with the boundaries of the tectonic plates. This is an example of how mapping can help scientists understand physical phenomenon. Look at where volcanoes are located and then look to see where earthquake epicenters are located.

The first interactive map from allows you to view several earth phenomena one by one or all at once. Use these options (located at the top of the map) to address these questions. <16>

A. Briefly, what kind of relationship is there between the location of earthquakes and volcanoes? (2)

B. Tracking which earth phenomenon would allow one to map out the borders of the tectonic plates? (3)

C. Volcanoes are colocalized with what kind of tectonic boundary? (3)

D. Describe how the different types of fault boundaries are associated with mid-oceanic ridges, mountain formation, volcanoes, and transform faults. (8)

4. Seismic Waves are produced when crustal regions separated by fractures in Earth’s slip relative to one another and cause earthquakes. View animations of the different types of seismic waves. <4>

a) Describe two differences between S and P seismic waves.

5. Earth’s Interior <15>

Learn about the layers of the earth, and the convection currents that drive plate tectonics. Watch the video link in the second link.

A. What natural phenomenon allows scientists to investigate the structure of the Earth far below any man-made hole? (2)

B. What are the three basic layers of the earth? (3)

C. What are the two primary types of crust and about how thick are they? (4)

D. What is the ductile region in the upper mantle and beneath the lithosphere called? (2)

E. Briefly describe why the tectonic plates move. (4)

7. Rock Cycle <6>

Learn the cycle and the classes of rocks. Know the three broad classifications and the relationship between them.

In your own words, describe the rock cycle (in a paragraph) (6)

7. Remote Sensing- Module A (optional) <0>

This tutorial on remote sensing allows you to adjust some of the orbital parameters of involved in remote sensing satellites. It is more detailed than we need and entirely optional.

8. Water Cycle <3>

Use these interactive animations of a simplified water cycle to firm up your understanding of how water moves through the geo, bio, and atmospheres.

List two routes by which water vapor enters the atmosphere and one way it exits the atmosphere.

9. Seasons. (optional) <0>

Learn why we have seasons on Earth. *Hint* It is not related to the distance between Earth and the Sun. (optional).

10. Climate Zones- You can use the two links or other resources to answer these questions. <6>

A. If all else is equal, is a location nearer the 90 degrees latitude point typically (warmer /colder) than those that are farther away? (2)

B. Proximity to a body of water typically makes local climate more (moderate/ extreme)? (4)

Week 1 AudioVisual Lessons <115> <547>

1. What is Geography? <10>

The first video clip in this section is optional.

A. List the four spheres or subsystems of Geography. (4)

B. Identify two sub-parts of one of these four spheres. (2)

C. Describe two ways that the biosphere interacts with the water cycle. (4)

2. Finding our way. <9>

A. Describe how ancient navigators were able to estimate their latitude. (4)

B. Describe the technology/technique that emerged that allowed early navigators to estimate longitude accurately. (5)

3. Maps as Cognitive Tools? <10>

A. When and where did William Smith make his map? What was a key discovery that came out of his work? (5)

B. When and where did John Snow make his map? What was a key discovery that came out of his work? (5)

4. Challenges and Advances in Mapping <16>

A. Describe the primary difficulty in constructing accurate map projections? (3)

B. List four spatial properties of Earth that are distorted in maps? (4)

C. The conformal (or Mercator) map projection is the most common map projection. What does this map show correctly and what does this map distort? (4)

E. Describe Geographical Information Systems (GIS). (5)

5. How is geographic research conducted? <9>

A. What is GPS and how does it work? (5)

B. Describe Remote Sensing. What kind of information can be inferred from multi-spectral imaging? (4)

6. Movement in the Lithosphere? Describe Tectonic theory and its connection to some physical features on Earth. (5)

7. What is Earth’s history? How do we know? <38>

A. How old is Earth? (2)

B. What are the two types of crust and which type is older? (3)

C. Describe three ways that scientists use to investigate Earth’s history. Be explicit. (10)

D. How old are the oldest rocks on Earth? (2)

E. List the different eons and eras and their time periods. (7)

F. Briefly describe the Hadean, Archaon, and Proterozoic. (9)

G. Briefly describe the Phanerozoic Eon. (5)

8. Atmospheric circulation <12>

A. What is the average direction of the vertical wind flow at the equator? (3)

B. What is the average direction of the horizontal wind flow at the equator? (3)

C. What is the source of energy that drives weather on earth? (1)

D. Briefly describe the Coriolis effect? Use your own research if necessary. (5)

Week 1: Hypertext Lectures and Textbook <91>

1. Know the difference between relative and absolute location. (0)

2. Give an example of the interaction between the atmosphere and the geosphere. (3)

3. What are CFC’s and why are they important? (4)

4. How many time zones are there? How many degrees of (latitude or longitude) does each represent? (4)

5. What is a Rhumb line and which map projections shows them as straight lines? Which map projection minimizes mid-latitude distortion? What is the advantage of the Gnomic projection? (9)

6. Explain the following representative fraction found on a map scale: 1:50,000. (3)

7. The geosphere can be divided into three broad spheres based on their chemical composition, the Crust, Mantle, and Core. <10>

A. What are the general chemical attributes of each? (3)

B. Two of these spheres can be further subdivided based on physical (or mechanical) properties. What are these subdivisions? (6)

C. (True/ False) Oceanic crust is thicker than continental crust? (1)

8. What are two lines of evidence that encouraged Alfred Wegener to propose the prehistoric existence of the super-continent Pangea? (3)

9. Describe three kinds of faults? (6)

10. Describe and explain the age of materials around the mid-Atlantic Ridge? (3)

11. What are the two broad classes of weathering? Give an example of each. (4)

12. Be able to define geologic uplift and glaciation. What is a tarn? (2)

13. Know how oceanic islands and coral reefs can be related. (0)

14. How is ozone useful and where must it be in order for it to have this role? (4)

15. Describe the four major atmospheric layers? (4)

16. What are three major factors in the climate of a place? Is (latitude or longitude) more implicated in the weather of a location? (4)

17. Atmospheric circulation <8>

A. What is a convection cell? (4)

B. How do they relate to the equator? (4)

18. What are the Westerlies? In which direction do they come from? What direction do they flow towards? (4)

19. List the name and characteristics of four cloud types. (6)

20. Define Orographic precipitation (4)

21. What happens when warm and cold fronts collide? (4)

22. Be able to name and describe the broad classes of weathering. (0)

23. Know the terms, subduction zone, terminal moraine, gradient, gradiational and talus. A. (True or False) winds blow from high pressure to low pressure zones. (2)

Week 2 Interactive Lessons (115) <343>

1. Global Carbon Cycle. Although similar to the water cycle in that the carbon cycle is global in scope the two cycles have very different driving forces. Understand what drives the carbon cycle.

Describe how two human activities have altered the carbon cycle. (6)

2. Biomes of the World. <19>

A. What is a biome? (3)

B. Describe Savanna and where it is located? (4)

C. Consider driving through the middle of the US from the east coast to the west coast. Describe four dominant biomes that would be crossed? (12)

3. IMAPS Atlas <12>

The interactive IMAPS mapping tool is very powerful but not working currently so please use the Map 1 & 2 to view static maps from IMAPS. These maps contain all the information you need to address questions A-D below.

A. What two continents are almost entirely in the ‘high’ level of biodiversity? (3)

B. What is the biodiversity rank (1 = low, 5 = high) of Canada, the US, and Mexico. (3)

C. What classes of species are included in estimating a state’s biodiversity ranking? (4)

D. What continent has the largest area of the world with a highly diverse population of freshwater fish? You will need to select 7.4 from the legend or use alternate map 2. (2)

4. Animal migrations <10>

Biologists are tracking the migrations of migratory animals with satellite transmitters, and we are allowed to see some of their data.

A. Describe two migratory animals and their routes. (6)

B. Explain the motivation behind such studies. (4)

5. Early Human Migration <16>

A. Which continent are humans thought to have first evolved in? (2)

B. About when are modern humans thought to have left that continent? (2)

C. When did humans populate Australia? And Europe? (4)

D. Describe the specific forms of genetic evidence are scientists using to follow ancient human migration? (8)

6. Cultural Hearths. Use the interactive to locate and learn about the origins of civilization. <12>

A. Briefly describe the Mesopotamian civilization and the time it occurred. (5)

B. Briefly describe the Indus Valley civilization and the time it occurred. (5)

C. Name the civilization and dates associated with the Andean region. (2)

7. Population Timeline. Civilization in 1- 200 CE. “Explore the Map” to use this interactive Population Timeline tool to examine important cultural events and features of the period between 1 CE to 200 CE. The timeline at the bottom of the map allows you to select different time periods. <16>

A. Describe the two largest civilizations of this era (year 1)? (5)

B. Briefly describe the “Silk Road” and its importance. (4)

C. Describe what “wreaked havoc” on one of the cultures you mention in part A. Why did this occur and how did their culture adapt? (5)

D. What was the approximate world population at this time? (2)

9. International Population. (optional) Notice which three countries in the world have the largest populations today? (0)

10. Languages of the World. Familiarize yourself with this interactive map. The map illustrates five continental regions in the world and summarizes the information about languages in that religion with a bar graph. <12>

A. How many “living languages” are there in the “Americas” region? (2)

B. In the “Americas”, which linguistic category (“Language by Status”) is most common, and which is least common. Also list the number of languages in each of these categories next to the category) (6)

C. Which continental region is the most linguistically diverse (has the most “living languages”) and which the least linguistically diverse? (4)

Most linguistically diverse:

Least linguistically diverse:

11. Languages in the US. The MLA has collected extensive data on the languages used in the US. This data is accessible both by the interactive map and their searchable database. If the map (link 1) is not working, you can use the database (link 2) to field the following questions. <12>

A. Use the language option on this map (upper right-hand side) to look up Navajo speakers in this linguistic map of the US. Which three states have the largest percentage of people who can speak Navajo? (4)

B. Look up Chinese speakers in this linguistic map of the US. Which three states have the largest percentage of people who can speak Chinese? (4)

C. Look up Spanish or Spanish Creole speakers in this linguistic map of the US. Which three states have the largest percentage of people who can speak Spanish or Spanish Creole? (4)

12. Know Your Belief Systems. Self-quiz on the most popular systems of religious belief. (0)

Week 2 AudioVisual Lessons (155) <228>

1. What is Biogeography? <13>

A. Describe the study of biogeography. (5)

B. Briefly describe Taiga or Boreal forests (4)

C. Briefly describe Temperate forests (4)

2. Earth’s Oceans <10>

In two or more paragraphs detail some of the most important ways that the ocean relates to the climate and human life.

3. Energy Flows on Earth? <5>

Describe the global ocean conveyor belt (thermohaline circuit). Indicate how it effects global climate. (5)

4. Of Wildebeest and Whales <17>

A. Select the first link and notice that the map (on the right) is animated. Follow the wildebeest migration. Where and why do wildebeest migrate? Where are the wildebeest in June? (5)

B. About how many wildebeest undertake this migration?

C. Describe why and where Gray Whales migrate? (4)

D. About how far do they travel? (2)

E. Describe the history of the relationship between humans and Gray Whales. (6)

5. Species on the move <12>

A. Where are Eucalyptus (The Tasmanian Blue Gum) from and where in the US are they now? What problem do they cause? (5)

B. View the animated USGS map (link 2). It may take a few minutes to download, but once it has the upper bar allows you to view the progression of this species over the last 30 some years. When and where were Zebra Mussels first introduced to the US and what has happened since? (5)

C. What particularly successful species do you think is represented in the last animated map in this section? Is this species invasive? (2)

6. From whence do we come? Early human migrations- under the microscope. <25>

A. Describe the Genographic project. How is the study conducted? How are lineages (or common ancestors) defined? What has the study found? (6)

B. What are some physical differences between Neanderthal and modern Homo Sapiens and how what advantages did these provide for them? (5)

C. Modern humans have larger brains than Neanderthals (True/ False) (2)

D. When is Neanderthal thought to have died out? For at least how long did Neanderthal survive? (4)

E. What are some factors thought to have been important in Neanderthal’s extinction? (4)

F. To what extent are Neanderthals related to humans today? (4)

7. What are the origins of civilization? <25>

A. Do you notice anything in common between the locations of the world’s ancient cultural hearths? (3)

B. What is the Great Divide and when and where was it crossed? (4)

C. What are common features of humanity’s earliest civilizations? (5)

D. How old is the Peruvian civilization of Caral? (2)

E. What fundamental question is addressed by archeologists? What hypothesis was disproven by Caral? How was it disproven? (6)

F. Describe what is known about what was happening at Caral? (5)

8. Of Ancient Architecture and Astronomy <8>

A. Describe how Mayan cosmology reflected in their architecture? (4)

B. What astronomical bodies were particularly important to the Maya (4)

9. The Historical Geography Religion <27>

A. In the animated maps attempting to portray the history of religion; what religions are depicted? (5)

B. What are the seven belief systems with the largest number of adherents? What is the estimated percentage of the population that subscribes to each? (7)

C. What is the estimated percentage of people globally that consider themselves an adherent of Judaism? (2)

D. What was ignored in the animated histories? (5)

E. How is this related to spatial and temporal resolution? (4)

F. Considering the number of adherents to various belief systems, do you see other problems with these animated maps as well? (4)

10. Human Population! <12>.

A. What was a key factor in the acceleration of early population growth (before 1 CE)?

B. E About what time did the population reach 100 million persons? (2)

C. About what time did the population reach 200 million persons? (2)

D. About what time did the population reach 1 billion persons? (2)

E. Learn how to use population pyramids. (0)

F. Describe the US animated life expectancy data shown in terms of race and gender. Compare and contrast 1900 and 1980. What demographic shift occurred in 1960? (6)

Week 2 Lecture and Text <73>

1. Familiarize yourself with the different biomes. Describe the Koppen climate classification system and the various classes. Be specific. (12).

2. About what percentage of California’s Central Valley communities (e.g., grasslands, freshwater marshes) have been lost? (2)

3. Know where most of earth’s water located. How much is fresh water and where is it? (3)

4. Know what a trophic structure is. Define ecosystem. What five factors help define or control any given ecosystem (8)

5. Name four biogeochemical cycles. (4)

6. What are the two primary biological processes involved in the carbon cycle? Which is associated with autotrophs (3)

7. A prelude to understanding human ecological impacts. <18>

A. List two ways that humans effect the carbon cycles. (4)

B. Describe an important piece of evidence for the human effect on the carbon cycle. (3)

C. List two human activities that effect the Nitrogen cycle. (4)

D. List one human activity that effect the Phosphorus cycle. (2)

E. Describe Eutrophication and its consequences. (5)

8. What percentage of the oceans water is in the deeps? (2)

9. What is culture and how is it shaped? (5)

10. Know the definition of critical distance, distance decay, and lingua franca. (0)

11. All early written language is _______ (2)

12. What percentage of the world speaks an IndoEuropean language today? What are the next three largest language families? (4)

13. What historical epoch is probably the most responsible for the spread of the English language? (3)

14. Understand the demographic transition model and be able to define demography. What two rates vary across the different stages of the demographic transition model? (4)

15. What is demographic momentum? (3)