National Period Review for Exam II

National Period Review

Essay Question:

Discuss the shift between Puritanism and the Age of Reason exemplified by comparison of Edwards and Franklin. Give the beliefs of the Age of Enlightenment in this discussion.

Review Questions for short answers:

1. Jonathan Edwards wanted to call his parishioners back to the orthodoxy of the faith,
but the whole of his message was to present God as holy yet merciful. What
metaphor does he use to show that man deserves to die, but that God’s mercy
keeps him from falling?

2. What journey did Sarah Kemble Knight go on when she stayed at taverns along the

3. Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac or Way to Wealth celebrates what virtues?

4. In his plan for moral perfection, what question did Franklin ask himself in the
morning? What did ask himself at the end of the day?

5. Philip Freneau wrote romantic poems such as “To A Wild Honeysuckle” but is known
for his exposure of the cruelty of slavery in what poem?

6. John Woolman was a _______who believed in an inner light that came to man
through an opening, enabling him to believe in humanitarianism and equalitarianism.

7. What principle of Quakerism encouraged the Society of Friends to be instrumental in
the emancipation of slaves?

8. Samuel Occom, a Mohegan-Pequot who became an Indian preacher, thought what
skill was very important to teach his students.

9. What appeal to common sense did Thomas Paine used to call the colonists to
separate from the mother country? What did he mean by summer soldiers and
sunshine patriots?

10. What causes us to value things more dearly?

11, Valuing his roles as signer of the Declaration of Independence, the founder of the
University of Virginia, and his establishment of religious freedom, Thomas Jefferson
advocated that all men are _________.

12. Royal Tyler’s play The Contrast, written to exalt the patriots and to denounce
Britain, emphasized the themes of _____________and __________.

13. What perspective do you have about William Byrd from reading his diary? How did his predispositions come across in The History of the Dividing Line?

General Questions:

1. What did Edwards call God’s appeal to the heart of man (in his psychology of a
spiritual experience)? (the title of the essay)
2. What are the two faculties of the human mind and the role of each, according to
Jonathan Edwards?
3. What did Deists believe?
4. In what ways did Benjamin Franklin represent his age and what were his values?
(see next question)
5. Describe Franklin’s plan for moral perfection including some of his virtues and their
6. Characterize John Woolman’s actions based on his belief system giving specific
7. What were the basic doctrines of Quakerism?
8. What pedagogy (teaching techniques) does Occom use according to his writings?
How does he contribute to American Literature?
9. What is an American, according to Crevecoeur?
10. How does religious indifference come about, according to Crevecoeur?
11. Describe the rhetorical techniques used by Paine in his pamphlets.
12. What theory of government is set forth in The Federalist Papers?
13. Who wrote the Federalist Papers? What was the main purpose?
14. Describe the argument of the Declaration of Independence.
15. What assumptions underpin the Declaration of Independence?
16. Describe Freneau’s picture of slavery in “Sir Toby.”
17. What poignant question did the personae in the poem ask Sir Toby?
18. Who was Phillis Wheatley and what was her contribution to American Literature?
19. What was Philip Freneau’s view of the British?
20. What does Freneau say about life in his poem “The Wild Honey-Suckle”?
How is this a Romantic poem?
21. Discuss the two themes in Tyler’s “The Contrast.”
22. Characterize the American Yankee figure citing examples in literature.
23. What is a comedy of manners?