Please answer all of these in full and in order. do not repeat the question because it will show as % in safe assign.

REQUIRED TEXT: Christopher, Paul. (2004). The Ethics of War & Peace: An Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues (3rd edition). Pearson/Prentice Hall. (ISBN: 0-13-092383-4)

Major exam #2 is an essay exam. This exam is based on chapters 5, 6 and 7 of your text. Be
sure that you have carefully re-read these chapters before you do this exam.
In this exam you are to answer separately (thoroughly and thoughtfully) each question asked in
each number. Be sure to answer each question in complete sentences (not fragments). Be sure
to proofread your answer for clarity, coherence and correctness in grammar, spelling,
punctuation mark, etc. Make sure that you label or identify each part of your answer (for
example, #1A, 1B, 1C, etc.). Please do not lump together your answers. Your answer must be
word-processed, double-spaced, using 10-12 font size and number the pages of exam. If you
quote a passage from the reading to support your answer to a question you need to cite
reference (using parenthetical citation) for that passage you are quoting from the reading.
This exam is worth 100 points. Be sure to answer ALL the questions asked. Be sure to write
your NAME, ID number and COURSE NUMBER in 1st page of your exam paper. After you
have answered ALL the questions asked in this exam, save it in doc or docx or pdf format file.
Please be sure to save a copy of this file for your own record.
You are to submit this exam to Safe Assign (for originality report). To submit it to Safe
Assign, scroll done on the prompt that opens when you click on the exam. Look for
PLAGIARISM TOOLS. Please be sure to click the square box on the plagiarism tools that
says “I agree …” If Safe Assign reports more than 25% match your exam will
automatically receive a deduction of 20 points.
If you do not submit your exam to Safe Assign your exam will receive an automatic deduction of
25 points even before I read and grade it. So that you will be able to submit your exam to Safe
Assign, you must make sure that you submit it by the due date for this exam. Please note that
you get only ONE ATTEMPT to submit your exam to Safe Assign. In your answer to the exam
questions, please do not include the questions asked because that will automatically trigger a
Safe Assign match that will cause your exam to exceed the 25% acceptable limit.
YOU MUST NOT EMAIL YOUR EXAM (unless I have given you the permission to do so).
If you do so, you will not be able to submit it to Safe Assign which would mean that you will
automatically get a deduction of 30 points even before I read and grade your exam.
NOTE: PLEASE make sure that if you submitted a file for your exam, I can open it. If I cannot
open your file, I cannot read it. If I cannot read it, I will just give it a grade of zero.
EXAM #2 is due this MONDAY, 10/07/19 (11:59 :00 pm).

1A. According to Hart, what is an “internal point of view” towards the rules or laws of society?
(10 points)

1B. Give YOUR OWN examples (at least 3) of laws or rules that illustrate this so-called
“internal point of view.” (10points)
1C. Differentiate between the so-called “internal point of view” and the so-called “external point
of view”? (10 points)

2 A. From the perspective of justum ad bellum, discuss in detail each of the six conditions
necessary for a nation to declare war, which Grotius accepts. (20 points)

2B. There is a 7th condition considered necessary for a nation to declare. What is this 7
condition and why is this condition omitted in Grotius’ consideration? (5 points)

2C. From the perspective of jus in bello, state clearly the overall principle guiding Grotius in his
consideration of the lawful conduct of war. (10 points)

3A. What does Dworkin say about Hart’s claim that laws are void of any essential moral
content? (10 points)

3B. For Dworkin, is it important to differentiate between the lawmakers’ real intent and the
literal meaning of the written law? Explain fully your answer. (10 points)

3C. Discuss fully the details of the Riggs v. Palmer case. (5 points)
3D. What does Dworkin say about this case? (10 points)