I would like you to respond to two discussion posts by giving your opinion on it and also using 1 quote for each of the discussion posts from specific articles you also must cite the quote and explain the background of it. PLEASE BE SURE TO USE PROPER CHICAGO/TURABIAN STYLE WHEN CITING YOUR QUOTES. PLEASE CITE THE QUOTES LIKE THE DISCUSSIONS BELOW CITE THEM AND DO NOT INCLUDE A BIBLIOGRAPHY SINCE WE ARE WORKING IN NOTATION.


The ancient world was made up of three continents which were Africa, Europe, and Asia. There was no universal language, standard of measurement, or currency to unite them. This made it difficult for international trade to take place. States and kingdoms pursued their interests, igniting conflict. Alexander the Great conquered them all and became the ruler. In EgyptGreek language and culture had a strong influence in the empire. It was a way to connect everyone in some way. It was now easier for the west and the east to trade with one another. A period of unheard-of affluence and knowledge advancement that enhanced the sciences in the ancient world resulted through the exchange of ideas and trade. Numerous discoveries followed.

The secret to Alexander’s victory was his military prowess, which allowed him to accurately place his cavalry and soldiers in strategic battle locations. He appeared to have been on the verge of defeat more than once, yet he could take advantage of the circumstance by drawing his adversaries into a more lethal trap. His soldiers were also skilled at holding their places and remaining composed in the heat of battle. The father of Alexander, Philip, was unsure of starting a war with the Persian Empire. Once he died, Alexander decided that he wanted to go through with the war and was determined on conquering it, “the Persian empire had no ports anymore, and Macedonia was safe. In spite of a Persian offer to negotiate, Alexander decided to continue the war.”(1) Alexander innovated the Policy of Fusion to accept all of Persia’s citizens as subjects and blend Persian and Macedonian culture that would ultimately facilitate his vast empire’s rule. Alexander failed to designate an adequate successor because he did not have a Greek wife to provide him a suitable heir. It would be unfair and complicated if he chose just one out of all his generals to become king.

  1. Jona Lendering, “Alexander the Great: the ‘good’ sources,” Ancient Warfare Magazine,…


Before the era of Alexander the Great’s conquests, the young student Alexander had recognized the social and economic problems that fell upon the Greek Poleis, as a result of the Peloponnesian war. While the Spartans and Thebans fought for dominance over Greece with the Thebans emerging victorious, there were social and economic problems in Greece, such as struggles between democrats and oligarchs, incessant warfare, and the farmlands all over Greece being ravaged (1). But by the time Alexander was in his youth, all of Greece had fallen to his home country Macedonia, under the reign of King Phillip II, Alexander’s father. Phillip and his son Alexander had finished decimating Athenian forces who refused to cooperate and found the “League of Corinth”, unintentionally building a large force to invade Persia (2). When Phillip died, Alexander took his place as King, thus beginning his conquests starting with the Persian Empire. By using his military policy such as

After defeating Darius and conquering the Persian Empire, Alexander made peaceful offers to Syria and Palestine but dealt with other cities, such as the Egyptian City of Gaza mercilessly. And since then his conquered countries from Egypt to Bactria were added to his new Greco-Macedonian empire, which was a major change for the Greeks. Since countries beyond Greece such as Persia, Egypt, and Babylon were part of his new empire, the Greeks had to adjust to their former enemy, which includes sharing their cultures. His policies included ruling with the assistance of foreign nobles serving as administrators, from Greek to Egyptian, ultimately refusing to be bounded by xenophobic tradition in his new empire.

I believed that his failure to designate a successor is his desire to preserve the legacy in his own name, as mentioned in his letter to Aristotle, stating, “For my part, I assure you, I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power and dominion. Farewell.”

Joshua Cole and Carol Symes, Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture (New York: W.W. Norton, 2020),116-127

Online Reader Davis, W., 2022. Greece and the East. 1st ed. [ebook] Readings in Ancient History pp.332–35. Available at:

  1. Cole and Symes, Western Civilizations, 116
  2. Cole and Symes, Western Civilizations, 123

include a QUOTED SENTENCE THAT IS (15-20 words) FOR EACH RESPONSE from a primary source document located in the text, “Online Reader, ” or a credible website. Explain how the quoted sentence supports your point. You may use as many primary source documents as you like. Don’t forget to cite all primary sources.